Cells, tissues, and skin by Douglas B. Light

By Douglas B. Light

Cells are the smallest devices able to maintaining existence, they usually make up almost each element of the human physique. From the strands of hair on the best of the pinnacle to the nails on hands and ft, each constitution of the human physique consists of cells. teams of cells shape tissues and organs, which enable the physique to operate as an prepared approach. epidermis, the body's greatest organ, varieties a water-proof barrier that offers defense opposed to invading microorganisms and acts as a sensory and thermoregulatory constitution. "Cells, Tissues, and epidermis" explores the houses of every of those elements in bodies.

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Extra info for Cells, tissues, and skin

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Q 6/21/03 1:04 PM Page 46 4 Cytoplasm: The Factory and Post Office of Cells The cellular material located outside the nucleus and inside the plasma membrane is called the cytoplasm . It is where most cellular activities take place. In a sense, it could be thought of as a “manufacturing” area of a cell. Not surprisingly, early microscopists using light microscopes thought the cytoplasm was essentially a structureless and functionless gel. This is because the cytoplasm is essentially a clear, colorless substance.

It is where most cellular activities take place and consists of three major components: the cytosol, organelles, and inclusions. Ribosomes are tiny, round, non-membranous structures made of proteins and RNA. They are the sites of protein synthesis within cells. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a complex organelle composed of membrane-bound, flattened sacs and elongated canals that twist through the cytoplasm. Rough ER has many ribosomes attached to its outer surface that synthesize proteins secreted from cells.

Its enzymes put the finishing touches on newly synthesized proteins and lipids arriving from the rough ER. For example, sugar groups may be added or removed. Phosphate groups also may be attached. The Golgi apparatus then sorts out various products and packages them in vesicles for shipment to specific locations. Thus, like an assembly line, vesicles from the ER fuse with the Golgi apparatus on one side, and newly formed transport vesicles containing the finished product bud off the opposite side.

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