Breeding for disease resistance in farm animals by S C Bishop; C.A.B. International.; et al

By S C Bishop; C.A.B. International.; et al

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Generally from extracellular pathogens) to CD4+ T cells, which differentiate into T cell subsets with either effector or regulatory phenotypes, as described in detail later. MHC class I is expressed on the surface of virtually every cell. MHC class I molecules are heterodimers consisting of a single transmembrane a-chain and b2-microglobulin. The a-chain has three polymorphic domains – a1, a2 and a3 – a1 and a2 forming the peptide-binding groove of the molecule. Peptides bound by MHC class I are generally 8–9 amino acids in length.

The restricted TCR-ab repertoire responds to lipid and glycolipid antigens presented by the non-polymorphic CD1b molecule, rather than to peptide antigens presented by MHC molecules. NK T cells can express either IFN-g or IL-4/IL-13, and are thus thought to provide rapid help to drive adaptive immune responses towards either cellmediated or humoral. Again, they are thus thought to be a link between innate and adaptive immune responses. Dendritic cells Dendritic cells, first described as such by Steinman and Cohn (1973), are capable of activating naive T cells much more efficiently than B cells or macrophages, and thus are known as professional APCs.

Journal of Immunology 136, 2348–2357. , Shimada, N. and Yoshioka, M. (2004) Current research on acute phase proteins in veterinary diagnosis: an overview. Veterinary Journal 168, 28–40. W. and Zhou, Y. (2009) Species specialization in cytokine biology: Is interleukin-4 central to the TH1–TH2 paradigm in swine? Developmental and Comparative Immunology 33, 344–352. Muyldermans, S. (2001) Single domain camel antibodies: current status. Journal of Biotechnology 74, 277–302. , Svejgaard, A. and Garred, P.

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