Brain Development (Gray Matter) by Lakshmi Bangalore

By Lakshmi Bangalore

Introduces easy mind anatomy and mind improvement to school scholars. This booklet discusses the molecular foundation of vital anxious method specification, ranging from neural induction and trend formation to neural migration, axon tips, and synapse formation.

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Whether a synapse is maintained or not is determined by the level of activity within the synapse. During prenatal development, synaptic activity comes from spontaneously generated waves of nerve impulses. After birth, synaptic activity depends on sensory input from the environment. Such input, which includes visual stimulation, sound, touch, and so on, activates corresponding neurons to fire nerve impulses that converge on a postsynaptic cell. This is why, as studies have shown, babies who receive no attention from their parents may grow up with learning difficulties.

Like the insulation that surrounds electrical wires, myelin insulates axons and prevents the loss of electrical current, while increasing the speed of impulse transmission. Myelinated axons transmit impulses faster than nonmyelinated axons of the same diameter. 9 meters to 9 meters per second). Although the process of myelination begins as early as the fifth month of prenatal development and continues throughout life, the most rapid period of myelination occurs during the first two years after birth.

Thus more neurons are produced than can be maintained, and more axons invade target areas than are necessary. Neurotrophic factors control the naturally occurring death of excess neurons during embryonic development. This ensures that the number of surviving neurons matches the size of the targets that they invade. 3 Neurons compete for limiting amounts of neurotrophic factors released by the target cells. Neurons that get enough neurotrophic factors survive whereas the others die. their effect on various types of neurons with the hope of rescuing dying neurons in devastating disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and Lou Gehrig’s disease.

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