Biophysical Thermodynamics of Intracellular Processes: by Lev A. Blumenfeld, Alexander N. Tikhonov

By Lev A. Blumenfeld, Alexander N. Tikhonov

The most aim of this publication is to explain in actual phrases the strange positive aspects of "machines" having molecular dimensions that play the critical position within the most crucial organic methods, viz., power transduction and enzyme catalysis. considering those molecular engines paintings with thermal, chemical, and mechanical strength, the precise framework to debate them comes from thermodynamics and chemical kinetics. The booklet hence starts off with a assessment of the thermodynamics and chemical kinetics. It then discusses the inspiration of molecular machines, and particularly, the issues linked to making use of thermodynamics to small structures similar to enzymes. The authors then flip to enzyme catalysis, discussing theoretical and experimental investigations of protein dynamics. The concluding bankruptcy bargains with power transduction in organic membranes, concentrating on ATP synthesis.

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33). Thus, the "enthalpic" mechanism of indirect coupling appears to be unrealistic. This mechanism is inefficient in a purely statistical system (homogeneous reaction mixture) because energy released is shared by a tremendous number of thermal degrees of freedom. For any reasonable conditions, heating the reaction mixture will be too meager to cause shifting of the equilibrium in an energy-accepting reaction. " The operation of molecular machines implies that at least part of the energy released does not dissipate over thermal degrees of freedom in the surrounding medium, but is stored in the local domain of the macromolecule in the form of the excitation of one (or a few) selected degrees of freedom of a molecular machine.

Y = na/nd. This measure can be used regardless of the method of initiating the energy-donating process (the addition of a substrate, the variation of temperature, the addition of a catalyst to the system that was initially kept in a nonequilibrium state). This measure will be further called the efficiency of coupling. , 11 = na/nad· This measure will be called the stoichiometric ratio or the conversion factor. 39) Here, k\, L\, k2' and L2 are the corresponding rate constants for the forward and backward reactions, and K\ = kdL\ and K2 = k2/L2 are the corresponding equilibrium constants.

Amsterdam. 8. R. Welch (1985). J~ Theor. Bioi. 433-446. 9. W. Gibbs (1902). Elementary Pinciples in Statistical Mechanics. Yale University Press. New Haven. 10. S. Glasston. KJ. Laidler. and H. Eyring (1940). Theory of Rate Processes: The Kinetics of Chemical Reactions, Viscosity, Diffusion, and Electrochemical Phenomena. McGraw-Hill. New York. 11. J. Laidler (1965). Chemical Kinetics. 2nd edition. McGraw-Hill. New York. 12. H. Eyring. J. Walter. E. Kimball (1945). Quantum Chemistry. Wiley. New York.

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