Biological Mechanisms of Attachment: The Comparative by Professor Dr. Werner Nachtigall (auth.)

By Professor Dr. Werner Nachtigall (auth.)

Bioengineering is the department of biology which applies the equipment of engineering and physics to the learn of organic phenomena, and the vocabulary of expertise to explain them. really with recognize to the mechanics of flow and different physiological procedures, the benefits of this technique are visible. yet different fields of research additionally demonstrate new insights whilst biotechnical learn equipment are utilized, and this kind of is the comparative morphology of organic constructions. not less than, description in technical phrases allows whole, concise association of a box of study, offers a method of describing organic types in phrases in keeping with their functionality, and aids in understanding interpretations in keeping with structural layout and useful anatomy. it's from this viewpoint that the current booklet describes and discusses, on a comparative foundation, organic mechanisms of at­ tachment. even if those are one of the easiest organic mechanisms, they're interesting of their variety. This presentation is, in a manner, an outgrowth of that encyclopedic force that's inside each scientist. through the years, entire libraries of books were scanned because of this common interest; the library of the Munich Zoological Institute has proved a very beneficial resource of data. This little publication is a miles ab­ breviated distillation of the various thousand dossier playing cards which resulted from this urge to collect.

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Additional resources for Biological Mechanisms of Attachment: The Comparative Morphology and Bioengineering of Organs for Linkage, Suction, and Adhesion

Sample text

Another principle within this category operates with only one of the elements being highly specialized, such as in a suction, hook, or gluing device. Coupling elements of this sort may attach to very different structures or animal bodies. No special demands are made of the attachment point, except that in some cases it must not have more than a certain degree of roughness (suction apparatus) or smoothness (hook organs), or that it must be free of mucus, oil, and grease (gluing mechanisms). Thus one may divide this category loosely into two main groups: connection of two complementary parts, and attachment by one specialized device.

The bill of the northern diving bird Fratercula arctica, which is adapted for breaking up and crushing small but hard marine animals, is like Langenbeck's hemorrhoid forceps. The bent bill of the flamingo also has its analogs among the surgical instruments, and that of the black skimmer (213) is like a pair of angled cannula scissors (214). Compare the eagle's beak (215) with a pair of rib scissors (216), and the tearing beak of the vulture (217) with a rachiotome (218). These have Similar functions and almost identical shapes; the two instruments are especially designed for operations on the vertebral column.

Often the object to be grasped can be seized and gripped securely even when hidden in a tubular flower (the humming-bird beak) or obscured by a bone (certain surgical instruments). The two-jawed pedicellariae of the Forcipulata (sea stars, Echinodermata) are located singly or in bundles upon movable stalks. They often have delicate calcareous skeletons and serve primarily for the capture of prey-grasping and holding small crustacea with their finely toothed edges. The skeletal valves within the jaws of a pedicellaria are seated on a common basal piece at the end of the stalk.

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