By Professor Dr. Werner Nachtigall (auth.)
Bioengineering is the department of biology which applies the equipment of engineering and physics to the learn of organic phenomena, and the vocabulary of expertise to explain them. really with recognize to the mechanics of flow and different physiological procedures, the benefits of this technique are visible. yet different fields of research additionally demonstrate new insights whilst biotechnical learn equipment are utilized, and this kind of is the comparative morphology of organic constructions. not less than, description in technical phrases allows whole, concise association of a box of study, offers a method of describing organic types in phrases in keeping with their functionality, and aids in understanding interpretations in keeping with structural layout and useful anatomy. it's from this viewpoint that the current booklet describes and discusses, on a comparative foundation, organic mechanisms of at tachment. even if those are one of the easiest organic mechanisms, they're interesting of their variety. This presentation is, in a manner, an outgrowth of that encyclopedic force that's inside each scientist. through the years, entire libraries of books were scanned because of this common interest; the library of the Munich Zoological Institute has proved a very beneficial resource of data. This little publication is a miles ab breviated distillation of the various thousand dossier playing cards which resulted from this urge to collect.
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"It is a miracle that anybody guy must have saw, learn, and written down rather a lot in one lifetime. " — Kenneth Clark
Painter, sculptor, musician, scientist, architect, engineer, inventor . . . might be no different determine so absolutely embodies the Western excellent of "Renaissance man" as Leonardo da Vinci. Leonardo was once no longer content material, despite the fact that, to grasp a creative procedure or checklist the mechanics of a tool; he used to be pushed through an insatiable interest to appreciate why. His writings, pursuits, and musings are uniformly characterised by means of an incisive, probing, wondering brain. It used to be with this piercing highbrow scrutiny and distinct clinical thoroughness that Leonardo undertook the learn of the human body.
This unheard of quantity reproduces greater than 1,200 of Leonardo's anatomical drawings on 215 truly published black-and-white plates. The drawings were prepared in chronological series to demonstrate Leonardo's improvement and progress as an anatomist. Leonardo's textual content, which accompanies the drawings — occasionally explanatory, occasionally autobiographical and anecdotal — has been translated into English through the prestigious scientific professors Drs. O'Malley and Saunders. of their attention-grabbing biographical advent, the authors evaluation Leonardo's place within the ancient improvement of anatomy and anatomical representation. every one plate is observed by means of explanatory notes and an review of the person plate and a sign of its dating to the paintings as a whole.
While striking for his or her outstanding attractiveness and precision, Leonardo's anatomical drawings have been additionally a ways prior to all modern paintings and scientifically the equivalent of something that seemed good into the 17th century. not like such a lot of his predecessors and contemporaries, Leonardo took not anything on belief and had religion purely in his personal observations and experiments. In anatomy, as in his different investigations, Leonardo's nice contrast is the really medical nature of his tools. Herein then are over 1,200 of Leonardo's anatomical illustrations equipped into 8 significant components of research: Osteological approach, Myological process, Comparative Anatomy, frightened procedure, breathing process, Alimentary approach, Genito-Urinary process, and Embryology.
Artists, illustrators, physicians, scholars, lecturers, scientists, and appreciators of Leonardo's notable genius will locate in those 1,200 drawings the right union of artwork and technology. rigorously specific and actual of their information, attractive and colourful of their procedure, they continue to be this day — approximately 5 centuries later — the best anatomical drawings ever made.
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Additional resources for Biological Mechanisms of Attachment: The Comparative Morphology and Bioengineering of Organs for Linkage, Suction, and Adhesion
Another principle within this category operates with only one of the elements being highly specialized, such as in a suction, hook, or gluing device. Coupling elements of this sort may attach to very different structures or animal bodies. No special demands are made of the attachment point, except that in some cases it must not have more than a certain degree of roughness (suction apparatus) or smoothness (hook organs), or that it must be free of mucus, oil, and grease (gluing mechanisms). Thus one may divide this category loosely into two main groups: connection of two complementary parts, and attachment by one specialized device.
The bill of the northern diving bird Fratercula arctica, which is adapted for breaking up and crushing small but hard marine animals, is like Langenbeck's hemorrhoid forceps. The bent bill of the flamingo also has its analogs among the surgical instruments, and that of the black skimmer (213) is like a pair of angled cannula scissors (214). Compare the eagle's beak (215) with a pair of rib scissors (216), and the tearing beak of the vulture (217) with a rachiotome (218). These have Similar functions and almost identical shapes; the two instruments are especially designed for operations on the vertebral column.
Often the object to be grasped can be seized and gripped securely even when hidden in a tubular flower (the humming-bird beak) or obscured by a bone (certain surgical instruments). The two-jawed pedicellariae of the Forcipulata (sea stars, Echinodermata) are located singly or in bundles upon movable stalks. They often have delicate calcareous skeletons and serve primarily for the capture of prey-grasping and holding small crustacea with their finely toothed edges. The skeletal valves within the jaws of a pedicellaria are seated on a common basal piece at the end of the stalk.