Autecology: Organisms, Interactions and Environmental by Gimme H. Walter, Rob Hengeveld

By Gimme H. Walter, Rob Hengeveld

This ebook spells out the theoretical constitution, technique and philosophy of the technological know-how of autecology. The autecological technique makes a speciality of the interactions of person organisms (and their species-specific diversifications) with the spatio-temporal dynamics in their surroundings as a foundation for studying styles of range and abundance in typical structures. This organism-based method of ecological Read more...

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Although the birds are difficult to study behaviorally at sea, tests have indicated that relatively large numbers of species are attracted by odors (Verheyden and Jouventin 1994, Nevitt 1999a, b). Birds attracted in this way approach the odor source against the wind and less than one meter from the ocean surface. Seabirds that do not use olfaction made random approaches at greater heights of six meters or more in these studies (Verheyden and Jouventin 1994). Various volatile compounds that are associated with the primary prey of these birds, such as krill and fish, can be mixed with vegetable oil and poured onto the water surface.

8 The fluid-centered labellar filtering mechanism of adult Bactrocera fruit flies (Tephritidae). (A) Schematic view of the adult head, to illustrate the mouthparts. Note the extruded labellum (lblm). (B) Electron micrograph of the exerted labellum to show the arrangement of the tubular system responsible for feeding, the pseudotracheae or feeding tubes (each thick dark line represents one of these in the area “ft”). (C) Electron micrograph of the pseudotracheae to illustrate the ring arrangement of their structure and the series of inlets along their entire length.

Furthermore, knots feed mainly on sandy substrata with a surface film of moisture. They tend to avoid well-drained areas, muddy areas and deeper water (Piersma et al. 1998, van de Kam et al. 1999). These avian examples (see also Hall and Ross (2007) for ecological correlates with avian eye structure) show that the foraging ecology of an organism is associated with a sensory system that works in a particular way. How far different species within each of the genera concerned are different from one another is not yet possible to assess - but autecological theory suggests we should be aware of the possibilities.

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