Advances in Parasitology, Vol. 48 by John R. Baker, Ralph Muller, David Rollinson

By John R. Baker, Ralph Muller, David Rollinson

Advances in Parasitology is a chain of in-depth studies on present subject matters of curiosity in modern parasitology. It comprises clinical stories on parasites of significant impression, comparable to trypanosomiasis and scabies, and extra conventional components, reminiscent of zoology, taxonomy, and lifestyles historical past, which form present considering and purposes.

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DNA and RNA polymerase gene phylogenies have proved invaluable for the classification of the major Leishmania species complexes; however, some parts of even these phylogenies are still not strongly supported and it will be necessary to include additional taxa and possibly to employ additional genes before the true species phylogeny of Leishmania can be determined with confidence. Moreover, while a number of techniques has been shown to be suitable for identifying and classifying Leishmania strains within species complexes, these all depend on the availability of a bank of reference strains.

Two consensus trees placed the lizard Leishmania external to the subgenus L. (Leishmania) and one consensus tree placed the lizard Leishmania between the New and Old World representatives of L. (Leishmania). The subgenus L. (Sauroleishmania) may be evolving rapidly to adapt to its new class of vertebrate hosts. If the polymerase genes of L. (Sauroleishmania) are also evolving rapidly relative to L. (Leishmania), the unstable classification of the subgenus L. (Sauroleishmania) in the polymerase phylogenies may be due to long-branch attraction (Felsenstein, 1978, 1988; Hendy and Penny, 1989).

Cruzi clade - predominantly mammalian trypanosome species from South America - also agrees with this interpretation and, significantly, the inclusion of an Australian marsupial trypanosome in the clade (Trypanosoma sp. H25 kangaroo, Figure 4) reinforces the idea that this grouping had its origin on a southern super-continent of South America, Antarctica and Australia, which remained linked together after the separation from Africa (Cox and Moore, 1993). Furthermore, the only trypanosomes from this clade found in the Old World are those infecting bats, mammals that are able to fly across geographical barriers.

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