By George Christopher Williams
This can be my favourite publication at the subject, and if you are analyzing this then you definately should still most likely get it.
It's no longer particularly as obtainable as Richard Dawkins' books, yet i locate this publication to be extra a extra whole and compelling learn than TSG or TBW.
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Apparently Allee (1940) believed that some such designation is warranted by the fact that soil improvement is indeed a result of the earthworm's activities. However, if we were to examine the digestive system and feeding behavior of an earthworm, I assume that we would find it adequately explained on the assumption of design for individual nutrition. The additional assumption of design for soil improvement would explain nothing that is not also explainable as a nutritional adaptation. It would be a violation of parsimony to assume both explanations when one suffices.
I would correct this argument by substituting advantageous for necessary in the first sentence, and by adding the words as well to the end of the second. Ecological or physiological necessity is not an evolutionary factor, and the development of an adaptation is no evidence that it was necessary to the survival of the species. We might indulge at this point in the fanciful act of rendering all present polar bears and their descendants a bright pink. We can now be sure 28 NATURAL SELECTION, ADAPTATION & PROGRESS that the species will not henceforth survive as well.
In this chapter I will discuss some of the limitations of the process of natural selection and their bearing on some common suppositions, such as the inevitability of progress. The stress on limitations does not indicate any doubt on my part as to the importance of natural selection. Within its limited range of activity, it has a potency that may still be generally underestimated by the majority of biologists. There is a very illuminating discussion by Muller (1948) on this point. ). The effectiveness of such bias in producing adaptation is contingent on the maintenance of certain quantitative 22 NATURAL SELECTION, ADAPTATION & PROGRESS relationships among the operative factors.